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Table of Contents
TOPIC 8.1 - Setting the Stage for the Cold War and Decolonization
U8_Learning Objective A: Explain the historical context of the Cold War after 1945.
- KC-6.2.II: Hopes for greater self-government were largely unfulfilled following World War I; however, in the years following World War II, increasing anti-imperialist sentiment contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states.
- KC-6.2.IV.C.i: Technological and economic gains experienced during World War II by the victorious nations shifted the global balance of power.
TOPIC 8.2 - The Cold War
U8_Learning Objective B: Explain the causes and effects of the ideological struggle of the Cold War.
- KC-6.2.IV.C.ii: The global balance of economic and political power shifted during and after World War II and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The democracy of the United States and the authoritarian communist Sovet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological conflict and a power struggle between capitalism and communism across the globe.
- KC-6.2.V.B: Groups and individuals, including the Non-Aligned Movement, opposed and pormoted alternatives to the existing economic, political, and social orders.
TOPIC 8.3 - Effects of the Cold War
U8_Learning Objective C: Compare the ways in which the United States and the Soviet Union sought to maintain influence over the course of the Cold War.
- KC-6.2.IV.D: The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and led to nuclear proliferation and proxy wars between and within postcolonial states in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
TOPIC 8.4 - Spread of Communism After 1900
U8_Learning Objective D: Explain the causes and consequences of China's adoption of communism.
- KC-6.2.I.i: As a result of internal tension and Japanese aggression, Chinese communists seized power. These changes in China eventually led to communist revolution.
- KC-6.3.I.A.ii: In communist China, the government controlled the national economy through the Great Leap Forward, often implementing repressive policies, with negative repercussions for the population.
U8_Learning Objective E: Explain the causes and effects of movements to redistribute economic resources.
- KC-6.2.II.D.i: Movements to redistribute land and resources developed within states in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, sometimes advocating communism or socialism.
TOPIC 8.5 - Decolonization After 1900
U8_Learning Objective F: Compare the processes by which various peoples pursued independence after 1900.
- KC-6.2.II.A: Nationalist leaders and parties in Asia and Africa sought varying degrees of autonomy within or independence from imperial rule.
- KC-6.2.I.C: After the end of World War II, some colonies negotiated their independence, while others achieved independence through armed struggle.
- KC-6.2.II.B: Regional, religious, and ethnic movements challenged colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries. Some of these movements advocated for autonomy.
TOPIC 8.6 - Newly Independent States
U8_Learning Objective G: Explain how political changes in the period from c. 1900 to the present led to territorial, demographic, and nationalist developments.
- KC-6.2.III.A.i: The redrawing of political boundaries after the withdrawal of former colonial authorities led to the creation of new states.
- KC-6.2.III.A.ii: The redrawing of political boundaries in some cases led to conflict as well as population displacement and/or resettlements, including those related to the Partition of India and the creation of the state of Israel.
U8_Learning Objective H: Explain the economic changes and continuities resulting from the process of decolonization.
- KC-6.3.I.C: In newly independent states after World War II, governments often took on a strong role in guiding economic life to promote development.
- KC-6.2.III.B: The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (the former colonizing country), usually in the major cities, maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires.
TOPIC 8.7 - Global Resistance to Established Power Structures After 1900
U8_Learning Objective I: Explain various reactions to existing power structures in the period after 1900.
- KC-6.2.V: Although conflict dominated much of the 20th century, many individuals and groups—including states—opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts.
- KC-6.2.V.A: Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century, and some, such as Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Nelson Mandela, promoted the practice of nonviolence as a way to bring about political change.
- KC-6.2.V.C: Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict.
- KC-6.2.V.D: Some movements used violence against civilians in an effort to achieve political aims.
TOPIC 8.8 - The End of the Cold War
U8_Learning Objective J: Explain the causes of the end of the Cold War.
- KC-6.2.IV.E: Advances in U.S. military and technological development, the Societ Union's costly and ultimately failed invasion of Afghanistan, and public discontent and economic weakness in communist countries led to the end of the Cold War and the collpase of the Societ Union.
TOPIC 8.9 - Causation in the Age of the Cold War and Decolonization
U8_Learning Objective K: Explain the extent to which the effects of the Cold War were similar in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
- KC-6.2: Peoples and states around the world challenged the existing political and social order in varying ways, leading to unprecedented worldwide conflicts.
- KC-6.2.II: Hopes for greater self-governemnt were largely unfulfilled following the World War I; however, in the years following the World War II, increasing anti-imperialist sentiment contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states.
- KC-6.2.IV.C: The Cold War conflict extended beyond its basic ideological origins to have profound effects on economic, political, social, and cultural aspects of global events.
- KC-6.3: The role of the state in the domestic economy varied, and new institutions of global association emerged and continued to develop throughout the century.
- KC-6.3.I: States responded in a variety of ways to the economic challenges of the 20th century.