World History Modern Unit 4 Standards - Transoceanic Interconnections

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Table of Contents

Unit 1 - The Global Tapestry
Unit 2 - Networks of Exchanges
Unit 3 - Land-Based Empires
Unit 4 - Transoceanic Interconnections (you are here)
Unit 5 - Revolutions
Unit 6 - Consequences of Industrialization
Unit 7 - Global Conflict
Unit 8 - Cold War and Decolonization
Unit 9 - Globalization

TOPIC 4.1 - Technological Innovations from 1450 to 1750

U4_Learning Objective A: Explain how cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of technology and facilitated changes in patterns of trade and travel from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.1.II: Knowledge, scientific learning, and technology from the Classical, Islamic, and Asian worlds spread, facilitating European technological developments and innovation.
  • KC-4.1.II.A: The developments included the production of new tools, innovations in ship designs, and improved understanding of regional wind and currents patterns—all of which made transoceanic travel and trade possible.

TOPIC 4.2 - Exploration: Causes and Events from 1450 to 1750

U4_Learning Objective B: Describe the role of states in the expansion of maritime exploration from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.1.III: New state-supported transoceanic maritime exploration occurred in this period.

U4_Learning Objective C: Explain the economic causes and effects of maritime exploration by the various European states.

  • KC-4.1.III.A: Portuguese development of maritime technology and navigational skills led to increased travel to and trade with Africa and Asia and resulted in the construction of a global trading-post empire.
  • KC-4.1.III.B: Spanish sponsorship of the voyages of Columbus and subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific dramtically increased European interest in transoceanic travel and trade.
  • KC-4.1.III.C: Northern Atlantic crossings were undertaken under English, French, and Dutch sponsorship, often with the goal of finding alternative sailing routes to Asia.

TOPIC 4.3 - Columbian Exchange

U4_Learning Objective D: Explain the causes of the Columbian Exchange and its effects on the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

  • KC-4.1.V: The new connections between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres resulted in the exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases, known as the Columbian Exchange.
  • KC-4.1.V.A: European colonization of the Americas led to the unintentional transfer of disease vectors, including mosquitoes and rats, and the spread of diseases that were endemic in the Eastern Hemisphere, including smallpox, measles, and malaria. Some of these diseases substantially reduced the indigenous populations, with catastrophic effects in many areas.
  • KC-4.1.V.B: American foods became staple crops in various parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Cash crops were grown primarily on plantations with coerced labor and were exported mostly to Europe and the Middle East.
  • KC-4.1.V.C: Afro-Eurasian fruit trees, grains, sugar, and domesticated animals were brought by Europeans to the Americas, while other foods were brought by African slaves.
  • KC-4.1.V.D: Populations in Afro-Eurasia benefitted nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops.

TOPIC 4.4 - Maritime Empires Established

U4_Learning Objective E: Explain the process of state building and expansion among various empires and states in the period from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.3.II.A.i: Europeans established new trading posts in Africa and Asia, which provided profitable for the rulers and merchants involved in new global trade networks. Some Asian states sought to limit the disruptive economic and cultural effects of European-dominated long-distance trade by adopting restrictive or isolationist trade policies.
  • KC-4.3.II.C: Driven largely by political, religious, and economic rivalries, European states established new maritime empires, including the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French, and British.
  • KC-4.3.II.A.ii: The expansion of maritime traditing networks fostered the growth of states in Africa, including the Asante and the Kingdom of the Kongo, whose participation in trading networks led to an increase in their influence.

U4_Learning Objective F: Explain the continuities and changes in economic labor systems from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.3.II.A.iii: Despite some disruption and restructuring due to the arrival of Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch merchants, existing trade networks in the Indian Ocean continued to flourish and included intra-Asian trade and Asian merchants.
  • KC-4.2.II.D: Newly developed colonial economies in the Americas largely depended on agriculture, utilized existing labor systems, including the Incan mit'a, and introduced new labor systems including chattel slavery, indentured servitude, and encomienda and hacienda systems.

U4_Learning Objective G: Explain changes and continuities in systems of slavery in the period from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.2.II.B: Slavery in Africa continued in its traditional forms, including incorporation of slaves into households and the export of slaves to the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean regions.
  • KC-4.2.II.C: The growth of the plantation economy increased the demand for slaves in the Americas, leading to significant demographic, social, and cultural changes.

TOPIC 4.5 - Maritime Empires Maintained and Developed

U4_Learning Objective H: Explain how rulers employed economic strategies to consolidate and maintain power throughout the period from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.1.IV.C: Mercantilist policies and practices were used by European rulers to expand and control their economies and claim overseas territories. Joint-stock companies, influenced by these mercantilist principles, were used by rulers and merchants to finance exploration and were used by rulers to compete against one another in global trade.
  • KC-4.3.III.ii: Economic disputes led to rivalries and conflict between states.

U4_Learning Objective I: Explain the continuities and changes in networks of exchange from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.1.IV.D.i: The Atlantic trading system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and labor, including slaves.
  • KC-4.1.IV: The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by chartered European monopoly companies and the global flow of silver, especially from Spanish colonies in the Americas, which was used to purchase Asian goods for the Atlantic markets and satisfy Chinese demand for silver. Regional markets continued to flourish in Afro-Eurasia by using established commercial practices and new transoceanic and regional shipping services developed by European merchants.
  • KC-4.2.II.A: Peasant and artisan labor continued and intensified in many regions as the demand for food and consumer goods increased.

U4_Learning Objective J: Explain how political, economic, and cultural factors affected society from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.2.III.C: Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred, including demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the slave trades.
  • KC-4.1.IV.D.ii: The Atlantic trading system involved the movement of labor - including slaves - and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples, with all parties contributing to this cultural synthesis.

U4_Learning Objective K: Explain the similarities and differences in how various belief systems affected societies from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.1.VI: In some cases, the increase and intensification of interactions between newly connected hemispheres expanded the reach and furthered development of existing religions, and contributed to religious conflicts and the development of syncretic belief systems and practices.

TOPIC 4.6 - Internal and External Challenges to State Power from 1450 to 1750

U4_Learning Objective L: Explain the effects of development of state power from 1450 to 1750.

  • KC-4.3.III.iii: State expansion and centralization led to resistance from an array of social, political, and economic groups on a local level.
  • KC-5.3.III.C: Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas.

TOPIC 4.7 - Changing Social Hierarchies from 1450 to 1750

U4_Learning Objective M: Explain how social categories, roles, and practices have been maintained or have changed over time.

  • KC-4.3.I.B: Many states, such as the Mughal and Ottoman empires, adopted practices to accomodate the ethnic and religious diversity of their subjects or to utilize the economic, political, and military contributions of different ethnic or religious groups. In other cases, states suppressed diversity or limited certain groups' roles in society, politics, or the economy.
  • KC-4.2.III.A: Imperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the formation of new poltiical and economic elites, including in China with the transition to the Qing Dynasty and in the Americas with the rise of the Casta system.
  • KC-4.2.III.B: The power of existing political and economic elites fluctuated as the elites confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders.

TOPIC 4.8 - Continuity and Change from 1450 to 1750

U4_Learning Objective N: Explain how economic developments from 1450 to 1750 affected social structures over time.

  • KC-4.1: The interconnection of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, made possible by transoceanic voyaging, transformed trade and had a significant social impact on the world.
    • KC-4.1.II: Knowledge, scientific learning, and technology from the Classical, Islamic, and Asian worlds spread, facilitating European technological developments and innovation.
    • KC-4.1.II.A: The developments included the production of new tools, innovations in ship designs, and an improved understanding of regional wind and currents patterns—all of which made transoceanic travel and trade possible.
  • KC-4.2: Although the world's productive systems continued to be heavily centered on agriculture, major changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of manufacturing, gender and social structures, and environmental processes.
    • KC-4.2.II: The demand for labor intensified as a result of the growing global demand for raw materials and finished products. Traditional peasant agriculture increased and changed in nature, plantations expanded, and the Atlantic slave trade developed and intensified.
  • KC-4.3: Empires achieved increased scope and influence around the world, shaping and being shaped by the diverse populations they incorporated.
    • KC-4.3.III.ii: Economic disputes led to rivalries and conflict between states.