# Human Geography Unit 2 Standards - Population and Migration

Disclaimer: This curriculum outline is sourced directly from the AP Human Geography Course Framework released by the College Board. This is a lightweight, web-friendly format for easy reference. Omninox does not take credit for this outline and is not affiliated with the College Board. AP is a reserved trademark of the College Board.

Unit 1 - Thinking Geographically
Unit 2 - Population and Migration (you are here)
Unit 3 - Cultural Patterns
Unit 4 - Political Patterns
Unit 5 - Agriculture and Rural Land-Use
Unit 6 - Cities and Urban Land-Use
Unit 7 - Economic Development

## TOPIC 2.1 - Population Distribution

PSO-2.A: Identify the factors that influence the distribution of human populations at different scales.

• PSO-2.A.1: Physical factors (e.g., climate, landforms, water bodies) and human factors (e.g., culture, economics, history, politics) influence the distribution of population.
• PSO-2.A.2: Factors that illustrate patterns of population distribution vary according to the scale of analysis.

PSO-2.B: Define methods geographers use to calculate population density.

• PSO-2.B.1: The three methods for calculating population density are arithmetic, physiological, and agricultural.

PSO-2.C: Explain the differences between and the impact of methods used to calculate population density.

• PSO-2.C.1: The method used to calculate population density reveals different information about the pressure the population exerts on the land.

## TOPIC 2.2 - Consequences of Population Distribution

PSO-2.D: Explain how population distribution and density affect society and the environment.

• PSO-2.D.1: Population distribution and density affect political, economic, and social processes, including the provision of services such as medical care.
• PSO-2.D.2: Population distribution and density affect the environment and natural resources; this is known as carrying capacity.

## TOPIC 2.3 Population Composition

PSO-2.E: Describe elements of population composition used by geographers.

• PSO-2.E.1: Patterns of age structure and sex ratio vary across different regions and may be mapped and analyzed at different scales.

PSO-2.F: Explain ways that geographers depict and analyze population composition.

• PSO-2.F.1: Population pyramids are used to assess population growth and decline and to predict markets for goods and services.

## TOPIC 2.4 - Population Dynamics

IMP.2.A: Explain factors that account for contemporary and historical trends in population growth and decline.

• IMP-2.A.1: Demographic factors that determine a popluation's growth and decline are fertility, mortality, and migration.
• IMP-2.A.2: Geographers use the rate of natural increase and population-doubling time to explain population growth and decline.
• IMP-2.A.3: Social, cultural, political, and economic factors influence fertility, mortality, and migration rates.

## TOPIC 2.5 - The Demographic Transition Model

IMP-2.B: Explain theories of population growth and decline.

• IMP-2.B.1: The demographic transition model can be used to explain population changes over time.
• IMP-2.B.2: The epidemiological transition explains causes of changing death rates.

## TOPIC 2.6 - Malthusian Theory

IMP-2.B:  Explain theories of population growth and decline.

• IMP-2.B.3: Malthusian theory and its critiques are used to analyze population change and its consequences.

## TOPIC2.7 - Population Policies

SPS-2.A: Explain the intent and effects of various population and immigration policies on population size and composition.

• SPS-2.A.1: Types of population policy include those that promote or discourage population growth, such as pronatalist, antinatalist, and immigration policies.

## TOPIC 2.8 - Women and Demographic Change

SPS-2.B: 􏰓􏰘􏰈Explain how the changing role of females has demographic consequences in different parts of the world.

• SPS-2.B.1: Changing social values and access to education, employment, health care, and contraception have reduced fertility rates in most parts of the world.
• SPS-2.B.2: Changing social, economic, and political roles for females have influenced patterns of fertility, mortality, and migration, as illustrated by Ravenstein's laws of migration.

## TOPIC 2.9 - Aging Populations

SPS-2.C: Explain the causes and consequences of an aging population.

• SPS-2.C.1: Population aging is determined by birth and death rates and life expectancy.
• SPS-2.C.2: An aging population has political, social, and economic consequences, including the dependency ratio.

## TOPIC 2.10 - Causes of Migration

IMP2.C: Explain how different causal factors encourage migration.

• IMP.2.C.1: Migration is commonly divided into push factors and pull factors.
• IMP.2.C.2: Push/pull factors and intervening opportunities/obstacles can be cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, or political.

## TOPIC 2.11 - Forced and Voluntary Migration

IMP-2.D: Describe types of forced and voluntary migration.

• IMP.2.D.1: Forced migrations include slavery and events that produce refugees, internally displaced persons, and asylum seekers.
• IMP.2.D.2: Types of voluntary migrations include transnational, transhumance, internal, chain, step, guest worker, and rural-to-urban.

## TOPIC 2.12 - Effects of Migration

IMP-2.E: Explain historical and contemporary geographic effects of migration.

• IMP.2.E.1: Migration has political, economic, and cultural effects.