AP Macroeconomics Unit 5 Standards - Consequences of Policy

Disclaimer: This outline is sourced directly from the AP Macroeconomics Course Framework released by the College Board. This is a lightweight, web-friendly format for easy reference. Omninox does not take credit for this outline and is not affiliated with the College Board. AP is a reserved trademark of the College Board.

Unit 1 - Basic Economic Concepts
Unit 2 - Economic Indicators and the Business Cycle
Unit 3 - National Income and Price Determination
Unit 4 - Financial Sector
Unit 5 - Long-Run Consequences of Stabilization Policies (you are here)
Unit 6 - Open Economy– International Trade and Finance

TOPIC 5.1 - Fiscal and Monetary Policy Actions in the Short Run

POL-1.F: Explain (using graphs as appropriate) the effects of combined fiscal and monetary policy actions.

  • POL-1.F.1: A combination of expansionary or contractionary fiscal and monetary policies may be used to restore full employment when the economy is in a negative (i.e., recessionary) or positive (i.e., inflationary) output gap.
  • POL-1.F.2: A combination of fiscal and monetary policies can influence aggregate demand, real output, the price level, and interest rates.

TOPIC 5.2 - The Phillips Curve

MOD-3.A: a. Define (using graphs as appropriate) the shortrun Phillips curve and the long-run Phillips curve. b. Explain (using graphs as appropriate) short-run and long-run equilibrium in the Phillips curve model.

  • MOD-3.A.1: The short-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment can be illustrated by the downward-sloping short-run Phillips curve (SRPC).
  • MOD-3.A.2: An economy is always operating somewhere along the SRPC.
  • MOD-3.A.3: The long-run relationship between inflation and unemployment can be illustrated by the longrun Phillips curve (LRPC), which is vertical at the natural rate of unemployment.
  • MOD-3.A.4: Long-run equilibrium corresponds to the intersection of the SRPC and the LRPC.
  • MOD-3.A.5: Points to the left of long-run equilibrium represent inflationary gaps, while points to the right of long-run equilibrium represent recessionary gaps.

MOD-3.B: Explain (using graphs as appropriate) the response of unemployment and inflation in the short run and in the long run.

  • MOD-3.B.1: Demand shocks correspond to movement along the SRPC.
  • MOD-3.B.2: Supply shocks correspond to shifts of the SRPC.
  • MOD-3.B.3: Factors that cause the natural rate of unemployment to change will cause the LRPC to shift.

TOPIC 5.3 - Money Growth and Inflation

POL-3.A: a. Explain (using graphs as appropriate) how inflation is a monetary phenomenon. b. Define the quantity theory of money. c. Calculate the money supply, velocity, the price level, and real output using the quantity theory of money.

  • POL-3.A.1: Inflation (deflation) results from increasing (decreasing) the money supply at too rapid of a rate for a sustained period of time.
  • POL-3.A.2: When the economy is at full employment, changes in the money supply have no effect on real output in the long run.
  • POL-3.A.3: In the long run, the growth rate of the money supply determines the growth rate of the price level (inflation rate) according to the quantity theory of money

TOPIC 5.4 - Government Deficits and the National Debt

POL-3.B: a. Define the government budget surplus (deficit) and national debt. b. Explain the issues involved with the burden of the national debt.

  • POL-3.B.1: The government budget surplus (deficit) is the difference between tax revenues and government purchases plus transfer payments in a given year.
  • POL-3.B.2: A government adds to the national debt when it runs a budget deficit.
  • POL-3.B.3: A government must pay interest on its accumulated debt, thus increasing the national debt and increasingly forgoing using those funds for alternative uses.

TOPIC 5.5 - Crowding Out

POL-3.C: a. Define crowding out. b. Explain (using graphs as appropriate) how fiscal policy may cause crowding out.

  • POL-3.C.1: When a government is in budget deficit, it typically borrows to finance its spending.
  • POL-3.C.2: A loanable funds market model can be used to show the effect of government borrowing on the equilibrium real interest rate and the resulting crowding out of private investment. [See MKT-4]
  • POL-3.C.3: Crowding out refers to the adverse effect of increased government borrowing, which leads to decreased levels of interest-sensitive private sector spending in the short run.
  • POL-3.C.4: A potential long-run impact of crowding out is a lower rate of physical capital accumulation and less economic growth as a result.

TOPIC 5.6 - Economic Growth

MEA-2.B: a. Define measures and determinants of economic growth. b. Explain (using graphs and data as appropriate) the determinants of economic growth. c. Calculate (using graphs and data as appropriate) per capita GDP and economic growth.

  • MEA-2.B.1: Economic growth can be measured as the growth rate in real GDP per capita over time.
  • MEA-2.B.2: Aggregate employment and aggregate output are directly related because firms need to employ more workers in order to produce more output, holding other factors constant. This is captured by the aggregate production function.
  • MEA-2.B.3: Output per employed worker is a measure of average labor productivity.
  • MEA-2.B.4: Productivity is determined by the level of technology and physical and human capital per worker.
  • MEA-2.B.5: The aggregate production function shows that output per capita is positively related to both physical and human capital per capita.

MOD-1.C: Explain (using graphs as appropriate) how the PPC is related to the long-run aggregate supply (LRAS) curve.

  • MOD-1.C.1: An outward shift in the PPC is analogous to a rightward shift of the long-run aggregate supply curve.

TOPIC 5.7 - Public Policy and Economic Growth

POL-4.A: a. Explain (using graphs as appropriate) public policies aimed at influencing long-run economic growth. b. Define supply-side fiscal policies.

  • POL-4.A.1: Public policies that impact productivity and labor force participation affect real GDP per capita and economic growth.
  • POL-4.A.2: Government policies that invest in infrastructure and technology affect growth.
  • POL-4.A.3: Supply-side fiscal policies affect aggregate demand, aggregate supply, and potential output in the short run and long run by influencing incentives that affect household and business economic behavior.