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AP Euro Unit 9 Curriculum Outline

Disclaimer: This outline is sourced directly from the AP European History Course Framework released by the College Board. This is a lightweight, web-friendly format for easy reference. Omninox does not take credit for this outline and is not affiliated with the College Board. AP is a reserved trademark of the College Board.

Table of Contents

Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9 (you are here)

TOPIC 9.1 - Contextualizing Cold War and Contemporary Europe

U9_Learning Objective A: Explain the context in which the Cold War developed, spread, and ended in Europe.

  • KC-4.1: Total war and political instability in the first half of the 20th century gave way to a polarized state order during the Cold War and eventually to efforts at transnational union.
    • KC-4.1.IV: As World War II ended, a Cold War between the liberal democratic West and the communist East began, lasting nearly half a century.
  • KC-4.2: The stresses of economic collapse and total war engendered internal conflicts within European states and created conflicting conceptions of the relationship between the individual and the state, as demonstrated in the ideological battle between and among democracy, communism, and fascism.
  • KC-4.3: During the 20th century, diverse intellectual and cultural movements questioned the existence of objective knowledge, the ability of reason to arrive at truth, and the role of religion in determining moral standards.
    • KC-4.3.I.ii: The experience of war intensified a sense of anxiety that permeated many facets of thought and culture, giving way by the century's end to a plurality of intellectual frameworks.
  • KC-4.4: Demographic changes, economic growth, total war, disruptions of traditional social patterns, and competing definitions of freedom and justice altered the experiences of everyday life.
    • KC-4.4.III: New voices gained prominence in political, intellectual, and social discourse.

TOPIC 9.2 - Rebuilding Europe

U9_Learning Objective B: Explain how economic developments resulted in economic, political, and cultural change in the period after World War II.

  • KC-4.2.IV.A: Marshall Plan funds from the United States financed an extensive reconstruction of industry and infrastructure and stimulated an extended period of growth in Western and Central Europe, often referred to as an "economic miracle," which increased the economic and cultural importance of consumerism.

TOPIC 9.3 - The Cold War

U9_Learning Objective C: Explain the causes, events, and effects of the Cold War in the period following World War II.

  • KC-4.1.IV.A: Despite efforts to maintain international cooperation through the newly created United Nations, deep-seated tensions between the USSR and the West led to the divison of Europe, which was referred to in the West as the Iron Curtain.
  • KC-4.1.IV.B: The Cold War played out on a global stage and involved propaganda campaigns; covert actions; limited "hot wars" in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean; and an arms race, with the threat of a nuclear war.

TOPIC 9.4 - Two Super Powers Emerge

U9_Learning Objective D: Explain the economic and political consequences of the Cold War for Europe.

  • KC-4.1.IV.C: The United States exerted a strong military, political, and economic influence in Western Europe, leading to the creation of world monetary and trade systems and geopolitical alliances, including NATO.
  • KC-4.1.IV.D: Countries east of the Iron Curtain came under the military, political, and economic domination of the Soviet Union within the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) and the Warsaw Pact.
  • KC-4.2.V.A: Central and Eastern European nations within the Soviet bloc followed an economic model based on central planning, extensive social welfare, and specialized production among bloc members. This brought with it the restriction of individual rights and freedoms, suppression of dissent, and constraint of emigration for the various populations within the Soviet bloc.
  • KC-4.2.V: Eastern European nations were bound by their relationships with the Soviet Union, which oscillated between repression and limited reform, until the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the fall of the Soviet Union.
    • KC-4.2.V.B: After 1956, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policies failed to meet their economic goals within the Soviet Union; combined with reactions to existing limitations on individual rights, this prompted revolts in Eastern Europe, which ended with a reimposition of Soviet rule and repressive totalitarian regimes.
  • KC-4.2.V.D.i: The rise of new nationalisms in Central and Eastern Europe brought peaceful revolution in most countries but resulted in instability in some former Soviet republics.

TOPIC 9.5 - Postwar Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Atrocities

U9_Learning Objective E: Explain the causes and effects of mass atrocities in the period following World War II to the present.

  • KC-4.1.V: Nationalist and separatist movements, along with ethnic conflict and ethnic cleansing, periodically disrupted the post-World War II peace.
    • KC-4.2.V.D.ii: New nationalisms in central and eastern Europe resulted in war and genocide in the Balkans.

TOPIC 9.6 - Contemporary Western Democracies

U9_Learning Objective F: Explain state-based economic developments following World War II and the responses to these developments.

  • KC-4.2.IV: Postwar economic growth supported an increase in welfare benefits; however, subsequent economic stagnation led to criticism and limitation of the welfare state.
    • KC-4.2.IV.B: The expansion of cradle-to-grave social welfare programs in the aftermath of World War II, accompanied by high taxes, became a contentious domestic political issue as the budgets of European nations came under pressure in the late 20th century.

TOPIC 9.7 - The Fall of Communism

U9_Learning Objective G: Explain the causes and effects of the end of the Cold War.

  • KC-4.2.V.C: Following a long period of economic stagnation, Mikhail Gorbachev's internal reforms of perestroika and glasnost, designed to make the Soviet system more flexible, failed to stave off the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of its hegemonic control over Eastern and Central European satellites.
  • KC-4.1.IV.E: The collapse of the USSR in 1991 ended the Cold War and led to the establishment of capitalist economies throughout Eastern Europe. Germany was reunited, the Czechs and the Slovaks parted, Yugoslavia dissolved, and the European Union was enlarged through the admission of former Eastern bloc countries.

TOPIC 9.8 - 20th Century Feminism

U9_Learning Objective H: Explain how women's roles and status developed and changed throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.

  • KC-4.4.II: The lives of women were defined by family and work responsibilities, economic changes, and feminism.
    • KC-4.4.II.B: In Western Europe through the efforts of feminists, and in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union through government policy, women finally gained the vote, greater educational opportunities, and access to professional careers, even while continuing to face social inequalities.
    • KC-4.4.II.D: New modes of marriage, partnership, motherhood, divorce, and reproduction gave women more options in their personal lives.
    • KC-4.4.II.E: Women attained high political office and increased their representation in legislative bodies in many nations.

TOPIC 9.9 - Decolonization

U9_Learning Objective I: Explain the various ways in which colonial groups around the world sought independence from colonizers in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  • KC-4.1.VI: The process of decolonization occurred over the course of the century with varying degrees of cooperation, interference, or resistance from European imperialist states.
    • KC-4.1.VI.A: At the end of World War I, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's principle of national self-determination raised expectations in the non-European world for new policies and freedoms.
    • KC-4.1.VI.C: Despite indigenous nationalist movements, independence for many African and Asian territories was delayed until the mid- and even late 20th century by the imperial powers' reluctance to relinquish control, threats of interference from other nations, unstable economic and political systems, and Cold War strategic alignments.

TOPIC 9.10 - The European Union

U9_Learning Objective J: Explain how the formation and existence of the European Union influenced economic developments throughout the period following World War II to the present.

  • KC-4.4.IV: European states began to set aside nationalist rivalries in favor of economic and political integration, forming a series of transnational unions that grew in size and scope over the second half of the 20th century.
    • KC-4.4.IV.A: As the economic alliance known as the European Coal and Steel Community, envisioned as a means to spur postwar economic recovery, developed into the European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market) and the European Union (EU), Europe experienced increasing economic and political integration and efforts to establish a shared European identity.

U9_Learning Objective K: Explain how the European Union affected national and European identity through the period following World War II to the present.

  • KC-4.4.IV.B: EU member nations continue to balance questions of national sovereignty with the responsibilities of membership in an economic and political union.

TOPIC 9.11 - Migration and Immigration

U9_Learning Objective L: Explain the causes and effects of changes to migration within and immigration to Europe throughout the period following World War II to the present.

  • KC-4.3.III.C: Increased immigration into Europe altered Europe's religious makeup, causing debate and conflict over the role of religion in social and political life.
  • KC-4.4.III.D: Because of the economic growth of the 1950s and 1960s, migrant workers from southern Europe, Asia, and Africa immigrated to western and central Europe; however, after the economic downturn of the 1970s, these workers and their families often became targets of anti-immigrant agitation and extreme nationalist political parties.

TOPIC 9.12 - Technology

U9_Learning Objective M: Explain how innovation and advances in technology influenced cultural and intellectual developments in the period 1914 to the present.

  • KC-4.3.II.B: Medical theories and technologies extended life but posed social and moral questions that eluded consensus and crossed religious, political, and philosophical perspectives.

TOPIC 9.13 - Globalization

U9_Learning Objective N: Explain the technological and cultural causes and consequences of increasing European globalization in the period from 1914 to the present.

  • KC-4.3.IV.C: Increased imports of U.S. technology and popular culture after World War II generated both enthusiasm and criticism.
  • KC-4.4.I.D: New communication and transportation technologies multiplied the connections across space and time, transforming daily life and contributing to the proliferation of ideas and to globalization.
  • KC-4.4.III.A: Green parties in Western and Central Europe challenged consumerism, urged sustainable development, and, by the late 20th century, cautioned against globalization.

U9_Learning Objective O: Explain how and why European culture changed from the period following World War II to the present.

  • KC-4.3.I.B: The effects of world war and economic depression undermined this confidence in science and human reason, giving impetus to existentialism and producing postmodernism in the post-1945 period.
  • KC-4.3.III: Organized religion continued to play a role in European social and cultural life despite the challenges of military and ideological conflict, modern secularism, and rapid social changes.
    • KC-4.3.III.A: The challenges of totalitarianism and communism in central and eastern Europe brought mixed responses from the Christian churches.
    • KC-4.3.III.B: Reform in the Catholic Church found expression in the Second Vatican Council, which redefined the church's doctrine and practices and started to redefine its relations with other religious communities.
  • KC-4.3.IV: During the 20th century, the arts were defined by experimentation, self-expression, subjectivity, and the increasing influence of the United States in both elite and popular culture.
    • KC-4.3.IV.A: New movements in the visual arts, architecture, and music radically shifted existing aesthetic standards, explored subconscious and subjective states, and satirized Western society and its values.
    • KC-4.3.IV.B: Through the century, a number of writers challenged traditional literary conventions, questioned Western values, and addressed controversial social and political issues.
  • KC-4.4.I.C: Mass production, new food technologies, and industrial efficiency increased disposable income and created a consumer culture in which greater domestic comforts such as electricity, indoor plumbing, plastics, and synthetic fibers became available.
  • KC-4.4.II.C: With economic recovery after World War II, the birth rate increased dramatically (the baby boom), often promoted by government policies.
  • KC-4.4.III.B: Various movements, including women's movements, political and social movements, gay and lesbian movements, and others, worked for expanded civil rights, in some cases obtaining the goals they sought, and in others facing strong opposition.
  • KC-4.4.III.C: Intellectuals and youth reacted against perceived bourgeois materialism and decadence, most significantly with the revolts of 1968.

TOPIC 9.15 - Continuity and Change in the 20th and 21st Centuries

U9_Learning Objective P: Explain how the challenges of the 20th century influenced what it means to be European.

  • KC-4.1: Total war and political instability in the first half of the 20th century gave way to a polarized state order during the Cold War and eventually to efforts at transnational union.
    • KC-4.1.IV: As World War II ended, a Cold War between the liberal democratic West and the communist East began, lasting nearly half a century.
    • KC-4.1.V: Nationalist and separatist movements, along with ethnic conflict and ethnic cleansing, periodically disrupted the post-World War II peace.
  • KC-4.2: The stresses of economic collapse and total war engendered internal conflicts within European states and created conflicting conceptions of the relationship between the individual and the state, as demonstrated in the ideological battle between and among democracy, communism, and fascism.
  • KC-4.3: During the 20th century, diverse intellectual and cultural movements questioned the existence of objective knowledge, the ability of reason to arrive at truth, and the role of religion in determining moral standards.
    • KC-4.3.I.ii: The experience of war intensified a sense of anxiety that permeated many facets of throught and culture, giving way by the century's end to a plurality of intellectual frameworks.
  • KC-4.4: Demographic changes, economic growth, total war, disruptions of traditional social patterns, and competing definitions of freedom and justice altered the experiences of everyday life.
    • KC-4.4.III: New voices gained prominence in political, intellectual, and social discourse.