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AP Euro Unit 7 Curriculum Outline

Disclaimer: This outline is sourced directly from the AP European History Course Framework released by the College Board. This is a lightweight, web-friendly format for easy reference. Omninox does not take credit for this outline and is not affiliated with the College Board. AP is a reserved trademark of the College Board.

Table of Contents

Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7 (you are here)
Unit 8
Unit 9

TOPIC 7.1 - Contextualizing 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments

U7_Learning Objective A: Explain the context in which nationalistic and imperialistic sentiments developed in Europe from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.4: European states struggled to maintain international stability in an age of nationalism and revolutions.
    • KC-3.4.II: The brakdown of the Concert of Europe opened the door for movements of national unification in Italy and Germany as well as liberal reforms elsewhere.
    • KC-3.4.III: The unification of Italy and Germany transformed the European balance of power and led to efforts to construct a new diplomatic order.
  • KC-3.5: A variety of motives and methods led to the intensification of European global control and increased tensions among the Great Powers.
    • KC-3.5.II: Industrial and technological developments (e.g., the second industrial revolution) facilitated European control of global empires.
  • KC-3.6: European ideas and culture expressed a tension between objectivity and scientific realism on one hand, and subjectivity and individual expression on the other.
    • KC-3.6.II: Following the revolutions of 1848, Europe turned toward a realist and materialist worldview.

TOPIC 7.2 - Nationalism

U7_Learning Objective B: Explain how the development and spread of nationalism affected Europe from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.3.I.F: Nationalists encouraged loyalty to the nation in a variety of ways, including romantic idealism, liberal reform, political unification, racialism with a concomitant anti-Semitism, and chauvinism justifying national aggrandizement.
  • KC-3.3.I.G: While during the 19th century western European Jews became more socially and politically acculturated, Zionism, a form of Jewish nationalism, developed late in the century as a response to growing anti-Semitism throughout Europe.
  • KC-3.4.II.B: A new generation of conservative leaders, including Napoleon III, Cavour, and Bismarck, used popular nationalism to create or strengthen the state.
  • KC-3.4.II.C: The creation of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which recognized the political power of the largest ethnic minority, was an attempt to stabilize the state by reconfiguring national unity.

TOPIC 7.3 - National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions

U7_Learning Objective C: Explain the factors that resulted in Italian unification and German unification.

  • KC-3.4.II.A: The Crimean War demonstrated the weakness of the Ottoman Empire and contributed to the breakdown of the Concert of Europe, thereby creating the conditions in which Italy and Germany could be unified after centuries of fragmentation.
  • KC-3.4.III.A: Cabour's diplomatic strategies, combined with the popular Garibaldi's military campaigns, led to the unification of Italy.
  • KC-3.4.III.B: Bismarck used Realpolitik, employing diplomacy, industrialized warfare, weaponry, and the manipulation of democratic mechanisms to unify Germany.

U7_Learning Objective D: Explain how nationalist sentiment and political alliances led to tension between and among European powers from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.4.III.C: After 1871, Bismarck attempted to maintain the balance of power through a complex system of slliances directed at isolating France.
  • KC-3.4.III.D: Bismarck's dismissal in 1890 eventually led to a system of mutually antagonistic alliances and heightened international tensions.
  • KC-3.4.III.E: Nationalist tensions in the Balkans drew the Great Powers into a series of crises, leading up to World War I.

TOPIC 7.4 - Darwinism, Social Darwinism

U7_Learning Objective E: Explain how Darwin's theories influenced scientific and social developments from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.6.II.B: Charles Darwin provided a scientific and material account of biological change and the development of human beings as a species, and inadvertently, a justification for racialist theories that became known as Social Darwinism.

TOPIC 7.5 - The Age of Progress and Modernity

U7_Learning Objective F: Explain how science and other intellectual disciplines developed and changed throughout the period from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.6.II.A: Positivism, or the philosophy that science alone provides knowledge, emphasized the rational and scientific analysis of nature and human affairs.
  • KC-3.6.III: In the later 19th century, a new relativism in values and the loss of confidence in the objectivity of knowledge led to modernism in intellectual and cultural life.
    • KC-3.6.III.A: Philosophy largely moved from rational interpretations of nature and human society to an emphasis on irrationality and impulse, a view that contributed to the belief that conflict and struggle led to progress.
    • KC-3.6.III.B: Freudian psychology offered a new account of human nature that emphasized the role of the irrational and the struggle between the conscious and subconscious.
    • KC-3.6.III.C: Developments in the natural sciences, such as quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of relativity, undermined the primacy of Newtonian physics as an objective description of nature.

TOPIC 7.6 - New Imperialism: Motivations and Methods

U7_Learning Objective G: Explain the motivations that led to European imperialism in the period from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.5.I: European nations were driven by economic, political, and cultural motivations in their new imperial ventures in Asia and Africa.
    • KC-3.5.I.A: European national rivalries and strategic concerns fostered imperial expansion and competition for colonies.
    • KC-3.5.I.B: The search for raw materials and markets for manufactured goods, as well as strategic and nationalistic considerations, drove Europeans to colonize Africa and Asia, even as European colonies in the Americas broke free politically, if not economically.
    • KC-3.5.I.C: European imperialists justified overseas expansion and rule by claiming cultural and racial superiority.

U7_Learning Objective H: Explain how technological advances enabled European imperialism from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.5.II.A: The development of advanced weaponry ensured the military advantage of Europeans over colonized areas.
  • KC-3.5.II.B: Communication and transportation technologies facilitated the creation and expansion of European empires.
  • KC-3.5.II.C: Advances in medicine enabled European survival in Africa and Asia.

TOPIC 7.7 - Imperialism's Global Effects

U7_Learning Objective I: Explain how European imperialism affected both European and non-European societies.

  • KC-3.5.III: Imperial endeavors significantly affected society, diplomacy, and culture in Europe and created resistance to foreign control abroad.
    • KC-3.5.III.A: Imperialism created diplomatic tensions among European states that strained alliance systems.
    • KC-3.5.III.B: Imperial encounters with non-European peoples influenced the styles and subject matter of artists and writers and provoked debate over the acquisition of colonies.
    • KC-3.5.III.C: Especially as non-Europeans became educated in Western values, they challenged European imperialism through nationalist movements and by moderning local economies and societies.

TOPIC 7.8 - 19th-Century Culture and Arts

U7_Learning Objective J: Explain the continuities and changes in European artistic expression from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.6.I: Romanticism broke with Neoclassical forms of artistic representation and with rationalism, placing more emphasis on intuition and emotion.
  • KC-3.6.I.A: Romantic artists and composers broke from classical artistic forms to emphasize emotion, nature, individuality, intuition, the supernatural, and national histories in their works.
  • KC-3.6.I.B: Romantic writers expressed similar themes while responding to the Industrial Revolution and to various political revolutions.
  • KC-3.6.II.D: Realist and materialist themes and attitudes influenced art and literature as painters and writers depicted the lives of ordinary people and drew attention to social problems.
  • KC-3.6.III.D: Modern art, including Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and Cubism, moved beyond the representational to the subjective, abstract, and expressive and often provoked audiences that believed that art should reflect shared and idealized values, including beauty and patriotism.

TOPIC 7.9 - Causation in 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments

U7_Learning Objective K: Explain the influence of nationalist and imperialist movements on European and global stability.

  • KC-3.4: European states struggled to maintain international stability in an age of nationalism and revolutions.
    • KC-3.4.II: The brakdown of the Concert of Europe opened the door for movements of national unification in Italy and Germany as well we liberal reforms elsewhere.
    • KC-3.4.III: The unification of Italy and Germany transformed the European balance of power and led to efforts to construct a new diplomatic order.
  • KC-3.5: A variety of motives and methods led to the intensification of European global control and increased tensions among the Great Powers.
    • KC-3.5.II: Industrial and technological developments (e.g., the second industrial revolution) facilitated European control of global empires.
  • KC-3.6: European ideas and culture expressed a tension between objectivity and scientific realism on one hand, and subjectivity and individual expression on the other.
    • KC-3.6.II: Following the revolutions of 1848, Europe turned toward a realist and materialist world view.