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AP Euro Unit 6 Curriculum Outline

Disclaimer: This outline is sourced directly from the AP European History Course Framework released by the College Board. This is a lightweight, web-friendly format for easy reference. Omninox does not take credit for this outline and is not affiliated with the College Board. AP is a reserved trademark of the College Board.

Table of Contents

Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6 (you are here)
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9

TOPIC 6.1 - Contextualizing Industrialization and Its Origins and Effects

U6_Learning Objective A: Explain the context in which industrialization originated, developed, and spread in Europe.

  • KC-3.1: The Industrial Revolution spread from Great Britain to the continent, where the state played a greater role in promoting industry.
    • KC-3.1.I: Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron and steel production, and new transportation systems in conjunction with uniquely favorable political and social climates.
    • KC-3.1.II: Following the British example, industrialization took root in continental Europe, sometimes with state sponsorship.
  • KC-3.2: The experiences of everyday life were shaped by industralization, depending on the level of industrial development in a particular location.
    • KC-3.2.I: Industrialization promoted the development of new classes in the industrial regions of Europe.
    • KC-3.2.II: Europe experienced rapid population growth and urbanization, leading to social dislocations.
    • KC-2.3.III: Over time, the Industrial Revolution altered the family structure and relations for bourgeois and working-class families.
  • KC-3.3: Political revolutions and the complications resulting from industrialization triggered a range of ideological, governmental, and collective responses.
    • KC-3.3.I: Ideologies developed and took root throughout society as a response to industrial and political revolutions.
    • KC-3.3.II: Governments, at times based on the pressure of political or social organizations, responded to problems created or exacerbated by industrialization.

TOPIC 6.2 - The Spread of Industry Throughout Europe

U6_Learning Objective B: Explain the factors that influenced the development of industrialization in Europe from 1815-1914.

  • KC-3.1.I.A: Britan's ready supplies of coal, iron ore, and other essential raw materials promoted industrial growth.
  • KC-3.1.I: Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron and steel production, and new transportation systems in conjunction with uniquely favorable political and social climates.
  • KC-3.1.I.B: Economic instutitons and human capital such as engineers, inventors, and capitalists helped Britain lead the process of industrialization, largely through private initative.
  • KC-3.1.I.C: Britain's pariliamentary government promoted commercial and industrial interests because those interests were represented in Parliament.
  • KC-3.1.II.A: France moved toward industrialization at a more gradual pace than Great Britain, with government support and with less dislocation of traditional methods of production.
  • KC-3.1.II.C: A combination of factors, including geography, lack of resources, the dominance of traditional landed elites, the persistence of serfdom in some areas, and indequate government sponsorship, accounted for eastern and southern Europe's lag in industrial development.
  • KC-3.2.V: Because of the continued existence of more primitive agricultural practices and land-owning patterns, some areas of Europe lagged in Industrialization while facing famine, debt, and land shortages.

TOPIC 6.3 - Second Wave Industrialization and Its Effects

U6_Learning Objective C: Explain how innovations in technology during the Industrial Revolutions led to economic and social change.

  • KC-3.1.III.A: Mechanization and the factory system became the predominant modes of production by 1914.
  • KC-3.1.III.B: New technologies and means of communication and transportation — including railroads — resulted in more fully integrated national economies, a higher level of urbanization, and a truly global economic network.
  • KC-3.2.IV.B: New, efficient methods of transportation and other innovations created new industries, improved the distribution of goods, increased consumerism, and enhanced quality of life.

U6_Learning Objective D: Explain how industrialization influenced economic and political development throughout the period from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.1.III: During the second industrial revolution (c. 1870—1914), more areas of Europe experienced industrial activity, and industrial processes increased in scale and complexity.
    • KC-3.1.III.C: Volatile business cycles in the last quarter of the 19th century led corporations and governments to try to manage the market through a variety of methods, including monopolies, banking practices, and tariffs.
  • KC-3.2.II.A: Along with better harvests caused in part by the commercialization of agriculture, industrialization promoted population growth, longer life expectancy, and lowered infant mortality.
  • KC-3.2.IV: A heightened consumerism developed as a result of the second industrial revolution.
    • KC-3.2.IV.A: Industrialization and mass marketing increased both the production and demand for a new range of consumer goods — including clothing, processed foods, and labor-saving devices — and created more leisure opportunities.
    • KC-3.2.IV.A: Industrialization in Prussia allowed that state to become the leader of a unified Germany, which subsequently underwent rapid industrialization under government sponsorship.

TOPIC 6.4 - Social Effects of Industrialization

U6_Learning Objective E: Explain the causes and consequences of social developments resulting from industrialization.

  • KC-3.2.I.A: In industrialized areas of Europe (i.e., western and northern Europe), socioeconomic changes created divisions of labor that led to the development of self-conscious classes, including the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
  • KC-3.2.I.B: In some of the less industrialized areas of Europe, the dominance of agricultural elites continued into the 20th century.
  • KC-3.2.I.C: Class identity developed and was reinforced through participation in philanthropic, political, and social associations among the middle classes, and in mutual aid societies and trade unions among the working classes.
  • KC-3.2.II.B: With migration from rural to urban areas in industrialized regions, cities experienced overcrowding, while affected rural areas suffered declines in available labor as well as weakened communities.
  • KC-3.2.III.A: Bourgeois families became focused on the nuclear family and the cult of domesticity, with distinct gender roles for men and women.
  • KC-3.2.III.B: By the end of the century, higher wages, laws restricting the labor of children and women, social welfare programs, improved diet, and increased access to birth control affected the quality of life for the working class.
  • KC-3.2.III.C: Economic motivations for marriage, while still important for all classes, diminished as the middle-class notion of companionate marriage began to be adopted by the working classes.
  • KC-3.2.III.D: Leisure time centered increasingly on the family or small groups, concurrent with the development of activities and spaces to use that time.

TOPIC 6.5 - The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism

U6_Learning Objective F: Explain how the European political order was maintained and challenged from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.3.I.C: Conservatives developed a new ideology in support of traditional political and religious authorities, which was based on the idea that human nature was not perfectible.
  • KC-3.4.I: The Concert of Europe (or Congress System) sought to maintain the status quo through collective action and adherence to conservatism.
    • KC-3.4.I.A: Metternich, architect of the Concert of Europe, used it to suppress nationalist and liberal revolutions.
    • KC-3.4.I.B: Conservatives reestablished control in many European states and attempted to suppress movements for change and, in some areas, to strengthen adherence to religious authorities.

TOPIC 6.6 - Reactions and Revolutions

U6_Learning Objective G: Explain how and why various groups reacted against the existing order from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.4.I.C: In the first half of the 19th century, revolutionaries attempted to destroy the status quo.
  • KC-3.4.I.D: The revolutions of 1848, triggered by economic hardship and discontent with the political status quo, challenged conservative politicians and governments and led to the breakdown of the Concert of Europe.
  • KC-3.4.II.D: In Russia, autocratic leaders pushed through a program of reform and modernization, including the emancipation of the serfs, which gave rise to revolutionary movements and eventually the Russian Revolution of 1905.

TOPIC 6.7 - Ideologies of Change and Reform Movements

U6_Learning Objective H: Explain how and why different intellectual developments challenged the political and social order from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.3.I.A: Liberals emphasized popular sovereignty, individual rights, and enlightened self-interest but debated the extent to which all groups in society should actively participate in its governance.
  • KC-3.3.I.B: Radicals in Britain and republicans on the continent demanded universal male suffrage and full citizenship without regard to wealth and property ownership; some argued that such rights should be extended to women.
  • KC-3.3.I.D: Socialists called for the redistribution of society's resources and wealth and evolved from a utopian to a Marxist scientific critique of capitalism.
  • KC-3.6.II.C: Marx's scientific socialism provided a systematic critique of capitalism and a deterministic analysis of society and historical evolution.
  • KC-3.3.I.E: Anarchists asserted that all forms of governmental authority were unnecessary and should be overthrown and replaced with a society based on voluntary cooperation.

TOPIC 6.8 - 19th-Century Social Reform

U6_Learning Objective I: Explain the various movements and calls for social reform that resulted from intellectual developments from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.3.III: Politivcal movements and social organizations responded to problems of industrialization.
    • KC-3.3.III.A: Mass-based political parties emerged as sophisticated vehicles for social, economic, and political reform.
    • KC-3.3.III.B: Workers established labor unions and movements promoting social and economic reforms that also developed into political parties.
    • KC-3.3.III.C: Feminists pressed for legal, economic, and political rights for women as well as improved working conditions.
    • KC-3.3.III.D: Various nongovernmental reform movements, many of them religious, assisted the poor and worked to end serfdom and slavery.

TOPIC 6.9 - Institutional Responses and Reform

U6_Learning Objective J: Explain how and why governments and other institutions responded to challenges resulting from industrialization.

  • KC-3.3.II.A: Liberalism shifted from laissez-faire to interventionist economic and social policies in response to the challenges of industrialization.
  • KC-3.3.II.B: Reforms transformed unhealthy and overcrowded cities by modernizing infrastructure, regulating public health, reforming prisons, and establishing modern police forces. The reforms were enacted by governments motivated by such forces as public opinion, prominent individuals, and charity organizations.
  • KC-3.3.II.C: Reformers promoted compulsory public education to advance the goals of public order, nationalism, and economic growth.

TOPIC 6.10 - Causation in the Age of Industrialization

U6_Learning Objective K: Explain the influence of innovations and technological developments in Europe from 1815 to 1914.

  • KC-3.1: The Industrial Revolution spread from Great Britain to the continent, where the state played a greater role in promoting industry.
    • KC-3.1.I: Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron and steel production, and new transportation systems in conjunction with uniquely favorable political and social climates.
    • KC-3.1.II: Following the British example, industrialization took root in continental Europe, sometimes with state sponsorship.
  • KC-3.2: The experiences of everyday life were shaped by industrialization, depending on the level of industrial development in a particular location.
    • KC-3.2.I: Industrialization promoted the development of new classes in the industrial regions of Europe.
    • KC-3.2.II: Europe experienced rapid population growth and urbanization, leading to social dislocations.
    • KC-3.2.III: Over time, the Industrial Revolution altered the family structure and relations for bourgeois and working-class families.
  • KC-3.3: Political revolutions and the complications resulting from industrialization triggered a range of ideological, governmental, and collective responses.
    • KC-3.3.I: Ideologies developed and took root throughout society as a response to industrial and political revolutions.
    • KC-3.3.II: Governments, at times based on the pressure of political or social organizations, responded to problems created or exacerbated by industrialization.