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AP Euro Unit 2 Curriculum Outline

Disclaimer: This outline is sourced directly from the AP European History Course Framework released by the College Board. This is a lightweight, web-friendly format for easy reference. Omninox does not take credit for this outline and is not affiliated with the College Board. AP is a reserved trademark of the College Board.

Table of Contents

Unit 1
Unit 2 (you are here)
Unit 3
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Unit 9

TOPIC 2.1 - Contextualizing 16th- and 17th-Century Challenges and Developments

U2_Learning Objective A: Explain the context in which the religious, political, and cultural developments of the 16th and 17th centuries took place.

  • KC-1.2: Religious pluralism challenged the concept of a unified Europe.
    • KC-1.2.I: The Protestant and Catholic reformations fundamentally changed theology, religious institutions, culture, and attitudes toward wealth and prosperity.
    • KC-1.2.II: Religious reform both increased state control of religious institutions and provided justifications for challenging state authority.
    • KC-1.2.III: Conflicts among religious groups overlapped with political and economic competition within and among states.
  • KC-1.4: European society and the experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by commercial and agricultural capitalism, notwithstanding the continued existence of medieval social and economic structures.
    • KC-1.4.III: Population shifts and growing commerce caused the expansion of cities, which often placed stress on their traditional political and social structures.
    • KC-1.4.IV: The family remained the primary social and economic institution of early modern Europe and took several forms, including the nuclear family.
    • KC-1.4.V: Popular culture, leisure activities, and rituals reflecting the continued popularity of folk ideas reinforced and sometimes challenged communal ties and norms.
  • KC-1.5: The struggle for sovereignty within and among states resulted in varying degrees of political centralization.
    • KC-1.5.I: The new concept of the sovereign state and secular systems of law played a central role in the creation of new political institutions.

TOPIC 2.2 - Luther and the Protestant Reformation

U2_Learning Objective B: Explain how and why religious belief and practices changed from 1450 to 1648.

  • KC-1.2.I.B: Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin criticized Catholic abuses and established new interpretations of Christian doctrine and practice. Responses to Luther and Calvin included religious radicals, including the Anabaptists, and other groups, such as German peasants.
  • KC-1.2.I.C: Some Protestant groups sanctioned the notion that wealth accumulation was a sign of God's favor and a reward for hard work.

TOPIC 2.3 - Protestant Reform Continues

U2_Learning Objective B: Explain how and why religious belief and practices changed from 1450 to 1648.

  • KC-1.1.II.B: Protestant reformers used the printing press to disseminate their ideas, which spurred religious reform and helped it to become widely established.
  • KC-1.2.II.B: Some Protestants, including Calvin and the Anabaptists, refused to recognzie the subordination of the church to the secular state.
  • KC-1.2.II.C: Religious conflicts became a basis for challenging the monarchs' control of religious institutions.

TOPIC 2.4 - Wars of Religion

U2_Learning Objective C: Explain how matters of religion influenced and were influenced by political factors from 1450 to 1648.

  • KC-1.2.III.A: Issues of religious reform exacerbated conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility, as in the French wars of religion.
  • KC-1.2.III.B: Habsburg rulers confronted an expanded Ottoman Empire while attempting unsuccessfully to restore Catholic unity across Europe.
  • KC-1.2.III.C: States exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests.
  • KC-1.2.III.D: A few states, such as France with the Edict of Nantes, allowed religious pluralism in order to maintain domestic peace.
  • KC-1.5.I.B: The Peace of Westphalia (1648), which marked the effective end of the medieval ideal of universal Christendom, accelerated the decline of the Holy Roman Empire by granting princes, bishops, and other local leaders control over religion.

TOPIC 2.5 - The Catholic Reformation

U2_Learning Objective D: Explain the continuities and changes in the role of the Catholic Church from 1450 to 1648.

  • KC-1.2.I.D: The Catholic Reformation, exemplified by the Jesuit Order and the Council of Trent, revived the church but cemented division within Christianity.

TOPIC 2.6 - 16th-Century Society and Politics

U2_Learning Objective E: Explain how economic and intellectual developments from 1450 to 1648 affected social norms and hierarchies.

  • KC-1.4.I.C: Established hierarchies of class, religion, and gender continued to define social status and perceptions in rural and urban settings.
  • KC-1.4.IV.A: Rural and urban households worked as units, with men and women engaged in separate but complementary tasks.
  • KC-1.4.IV.B: The Renaissance and Reformation raised debates about female education and women's roles in the family, church, and society.
  • KC-1.4.III.C: Social dislocation, coupled with the shifting authority of religious institutions during the Reformation, left city governments with the task of regulating public morals.
  • KC-1.4.V.A: Leisure activities continued to be organized according to the religious calendar and the agricultural cycle, and remained communal in nature.
  • KC-1.4.V.B: Local and church authorities continued to enforce communal normals through rituals of public humiliation.
  • KC-1.4.V.C: Reflecting folk ideas and social and economic upheaval, accusations of witchcraft peaked between 1580 and 1650.

TOPIC 2.7 - Art of the 16th Century: Mannerism and Baroque Art

U2_Learning Objective F: Explain how and why artistic expression changed from 1450 to 1648.

  • KC-1.1.III.C: Mannerist and Baroque artists employed distortion, drama, and illusion in their work. Monarchies, city-states, and the church commissioned these works as a means of promoting their own stature and power.

TOPIC 2.8 - Causation in the Age of Reformation and the Wars of Religion

U2_Learning Objective G: Explain how the religious, political, and cultural developments of the 16th and 17th centuries affected European society from 1450 to 1648.

  • KC-1.2: Religious pluralism challenged the concept of a unified Europe.
    • KC-1.2.I: The Protestant and Catholic reformations fundamentally changed theology, religious institutions, culture, and attitudes toward wealth and prosperity.
    • KC-1.2.II: Religious reform both increased state control of religious institutions and provided justifications for challenging state authority.
    • KC-1.2.III: Conflicts among religious groups overlapped with political and economic competition within and among states.
  • KC-1.4: European society and the experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by commercial and agricultural capitalism, notwithstanding the continued existence of medieval social and economic structures.
    • KC-1.4.III: Population shifts and growing commerce caused the expansion of cities, which often placed stress on their traditional political and social structures.
    • KC-1.4.IV: The family remained the primary social and economic institution of early modern Europe and took several forms, including the nuclear family.
    • KC-1.4.V: Popular culture, leisure activities, and rituals reflecting the continued popularity of folk ideas reinforced and sometimes challenged communal ties and norms.
  • KC-1.5: The struggle for sovereignty within and among states resulted in varying degrees of political centralization.
    • KC-1.5.I: The new concept of the sovereign state and secular systems of law played a central role in the creation of new political institutions.