Political revolutions that spread throughout the Americas and Europe
The second installment of the AP World History question reviews. Note that this question does not follow the new stimulus-based format that the AP exam has moved towards as of 2016, but it's a good topic to review nonetheless. If you missed out on the first post, where we reviewed the influences of communism in China and Russia, then we recommend you take a look at it.
This question focuses on the political revolutions that occurred in the 18th and 19th century. Let's go ahead and look at the question we're reviewing:
A result of the political revolutions of the late 18th and 19th centuries was that they
- instituted Marxist ideas through Europe.
- strengthened European control over South America.
- spread Enlightenment ideas through Europe and the Americas.
- prevented the formation of the nation-state.
The political revolution in the Americas and Europe led to a spread of Enlightenment ideas throughout these areas. One of these ideas was nationalism, patriotism to one's country. As a result, Spanish and Portuguese power in South America actually decreased because of the rise of nationalism. This actually gave rise to the nation-state.
Many nation-states were inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment. Marxism was too early at this point. In order for Karl Marx to develop his ideas on the nation-state, nation-states had to exist for a while first. Marx's ideas did not spread until the political revolutions of the late 19th century as a result of industrialization. Even when they did spread, they were largely concentrated in Russia, not throughout all of Europe. Therefore the spread of Enlightenment in Europe and the Americas is the correct answer.
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