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AP US History Period 2 Review Questions and Discussion

Tired of Spanish oppression, the Pueblo people revolted and drove thousands of settlers away. Source

APUSH: Period 2 (1607–1754) Introduction

Welcome to Period 2 of AP United States History! In these series of articles, we will cover a multitude of topics and themes crucial to the development of the United States. Moreover, I will review sample questions and provide the correct answers to them. Don't worry though, I will also provide in depth explanation as to why the selected answer is correct. Let's begin!

In period 1 we had a brief look at various types of Native American societies. However, our main focus was on the early arrival of European settlers to the Americas and their interactions with the Natives. In the beginning of Period 2 we see multiple European countries, each with different agendas, race to the Americas to establish settlements.

Not everything went smoothly though, as differing cultures and resource competition would create tension between both groups of people. This is particularly true towards the end of Period 2, where tensions finally explode into the French and Indian War. French settlers allied themselves with several Native tribes to repel English settlers. Likewise, English settlers also joined forces with distinct Native factions to fight off the French and their allies. Such conflicts would sow the seeds of resentment and anger for American colonists, but don't worry about that for now. We will cover that stuff in the next article.

English and Native American interactions

Source


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Stimulus 1

“Unquestionably, one of [the Pueblo] revolt’s dimensions was religious... Backed by armed force and not reluctant to use the whip, Catholic missionaries had set out to destroy the ancestral Pueblo world in every respect, including what people could believe and how they could marry, work, live their lives, and pray. When the rebels could capture Franciscan priests, they killed them, sometimes after torturing them. They destroyed Catholic images, tore down mission churches, and defiled the vessels of the Catholic Mass. They put an end to marriages on Christian terms. They restored the kivas where Pueblo men had honored their ancestral Kachinas. With Catholic symbols and Spanish practices gone, the Pueblos set out to restore the lives their ancestors had lived.

The Spanish return in 1692 was a military conquest... but it did not lead to a full restoration of their authority, due in part to the Spanish themselves. Secular Spanish officials began trying to rule “their” Indians in enlightened terms. They saw New Mexico not as mission country, where the friars had to be protected as they went about their task of saving Native souls, but rather as a buffer zone, protecting the precious silver mines from the not-so-distant French and even the British. They saw the New Mexican people as possible allies in the game of transcontinental empire, to be courted rather than conquered.”

-"The Pueblo Revolt", Edward Countryman, published 2011

Question 1A

The excerpt provides evidence to support the argument that (WOR-1.0)

  • A. because their religion was largely polytheistic, Native Americans were easily able to incorporate the Christian saints into their existing pantheon of gods.
  • B. native peoples in the Americas strove to maintain their political and cultural autonomy in the face of European challenges to their independence and core beliefs.
  • C. the spread of maize cultivation from present-day Mexico into the American Southwest supported economic and social diversification among societies in these areas.
  • D. Native Americans often revolted against their European oppressors, but these attempted insurrections rarely resulted in any change in the Europeans’ treatment of natives.

Answer: B

Explanation: The passage supports that native peoples in the Americas strove to maintain their political and cultural autonomy in the face of European challenges to their independence and core beliefs. This can be seen by how successful the Pueblo Revolt was.

Why it's the right answer

When the Europeans first arrived to the Americas, they attempted to indoctrinate Native Americas with Christian dogma. The Native Americans, however, did not idly stand by and allow their culture and traditions crumble in the face of European settlers. Instead, they resisted (actively and/or passively. It truly depends on what group you are examining.) Answer B accurately depicts this, as the Pueblo violently revolted against the Spaniards in order to retain their autonomy. Again, the Pueblo people were not the only Native Americans to fight off European expansion. King Philip's War (or Metacomet's Rebellion) is another incident set off by similar issues, only that it involved the English settlers. Let's look at other answers.

While Answer A is true to some extent, such as Santaria, it fails to address to point of the given passage. The overall message the passage conveyed had little to do with the Native's ability to fuse cultures and religion (in fact, it is likely that Spanish missionaries and friars attempted to completely eradicate Hopi culture). Instead, the passage argued how Natives fought to retain their cultural heritage and identity. Cross this choice off.

As mentioned before, the selected passage talks about Native Americans' resistance towards European influence. As a result, we can immediately cross off answer C as this passage has nothing to do with the impact of Maize cultivation on social and economic aspects of the American Southwest. That leaves us with answer D. The issue with this answer is that it provides a glaring difference to what the passage says. In the passage, the authors states after fleeing the area, the Spaniards reconsidered on changing the way they treat the Natives. Keep in mind it was not done out of consideration or respect, but more on political and economic prospects. Ultimately, this revolt changed how the Spaniards would treat the Natives.

Question 1B

The Spanish treatment of the natives after the Pueblo Revolt reflects the (WOR-1.0)

  • A. role of infectious diseases in the colonization of the Americas.
  • B. success of efforts at reform of the Catholic Church in Europe.
  • C. the military and technological strength of the natives.
  • D. declining power of Spain in the 17th century.

Answer: C

Explanation: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680—also known as Popé's Rebellion—was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizers. The uprising shows the American Indians military and technology strength as the revolt drove out 2,000 settlers.

Why it's the right answer

The key "trick" to successfully answering passage based questions is to use the information in the said passage. With that being said, this passage clearly demonstrates that the Pueblo people had the strength and capability to fight off European settlers. Answer C supports this claim. While infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles did play a imperative role in decimating indigenous populations, the passage makes no such reference at all. It merely explains how the Pueblo people successfully stood their ground against the Spaniards. Answer B talks about reforms in the Catholic church. Although reforms took place, it is completely irrelevant to the passage.

Now that you've crossed out A and B, let's see what answer D offers. While the Pueblo people successfully repelled Spanish settlers, it does not necessarily correlate to decline in Spanish power. If anything, the Spanish Empire was ascending to its height. Again, eliminate this answer choice and move on to the next question.

Question 1C

Who would DISAGREE the most with the Spanish treatment of the Native Americans before the Pueblo Revolt?

  • A. Hernan Cortes
  • B. Bartolomeo de las Casas
  • C. Juan de Oñate
  • D. Juan de Sepulveda

Answer: B

Explanation: Bartolomé de las Casas was a sick reformer and became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". He would most likely disagree with the treatment of the American Indians before the Pueblo Revolt.

Why it's the right answer

Before the Pueblo revolt, Spanish treatment of the Natives was brutal. In essence, the Spaniards forced the Natives in slavery. Although De Las Casas initially supported indigenous slavery, he was overwhelmed by the atrocious and horrific treatment the Native slaves faced. As a result, he was one of the very few people to actively oppose it, even going as far as freeing his slave and renouncing his encomienda. Aside from all that, he is literally the only option in the given answers that would denounce Spanish treatment of the Natives. For instance, we can immediately cross off answer A and C because both Cortes and de Oñate were conquistadors. As for answer D, de Sepulveda actively believed, supported and advocated for colonial slavery. He is the total opposite of de las Casas and because of that, D is wrong.

Question 1D

Which of the following was most similar to the Pueblo Revolt? (WOR-1.0)

  • A. Glorious Revolution
  • B. Leisler’s Rebellion
  • C. Bacon’s Rebellion
  • D. King Philip’s War

Answer: D

Explanation: King Philip's War or Metacom's Rebellion, was an armed conflict between the Native Americans (led by the Wampanoags) and English settlers. This conflict arose due to the colonists ever expanding presence in the Natives' land, especially after Plymouth officials murdered several Natives. Eventually Metacomet, or "King Philip" united several tribes and led an assault on the settlers. In spite of early success, the colonists ultimately emerged victorious.

Why it's the right answer

This question is an excellent example of compare and contrast. For this question, our main objective is to find which answer is most relevant to the Pueblo Revolt. As we saw earlier, the Pueblo revolt was an insurrection led by the Pueblo people to kick out the Spaniards. All we have to do is find common themes to find the correct answer.

We can confidently cross off answer A as that completely involves English history. In fact, we will learn more about it in AP European History. Anyways, answer B talks about Leisler's Rebellion, which mostly dealt the colonist's growing dissatisfaction with the British rule. As for answer C, Bacon's Rebellion involves the colonist's frustration with their Governor's inability to protect them from Native Americans' raids. That leaves us with answer D, King's Philip war. This conflict saw Natives clash with colonists over their growing encroachment. Does this sound familiar? Since you found the option with common elements with the Pueblo Revolt, circle D and continue with the exam.

The Enlightenment Source


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Stimulus 2

“The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone. That law is reason, and it teaches all mankind, that since we are all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another’s life, health, liberty or possessions.

Since men are, as has been said, by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of another without his own consent. Giving this consent is done by agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community to promote their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living, and a secure enjoyment of their property. When any number of men have so consented to make one government, the majority has a right to act and conclude the rest.

Wherever law ends, tyranny begins. A situation may arise in which the law is transgressed and someone is harmed, and then the monarch exceeds the power given him by the law by making use of force to compass that upon the subject which the law allows not. If this occurs, the monarch may be opposed, just as would any other man who by force invades the right of another.”

--Second Treatise of Government, John Locke, 1690

Question 2A

Reasoning similar to that used in the excerpt was eventually used to justify (NAT-1.0)

  • A. toleration for groups of Christians in Maryland.
  • B. colonial resistance to the British Crown and Parliament.
  • C. the imprisonment of accused witches in Massachusetts.
  • D. stricter British regulation of colonial trade.

Answer: B

Explanation: Reasoning similar to that used in the excerpt was eventually used to justify colonial resistance to the British Crown and Parliament. This was because the ideas presented in the passage promoted ideas of the government helping its constituency as opposed to restricting them.

Why it's the right answer

Right off the bat we can eliminate answers A and C. First off, in this excerpt, Locke makes no reference to religion whatsoever. In fact, it talks about the importance of law and the government's obligation to carry out the will of the people. As a result, we can scratch off A. The Salem Witch trials in Massachusetts was carried out by the colonists themselves, not by the British monarchy.

This leaves us with B and D. Now, answer D reads:Due to stricter British regulation of trade.The colonists were infuriated by the idea of a faraway island restricting their freedom and the fact that they (colonists) had no say (we will go into greater depth in Period 3) about taxes. As a result, these series of regulations and restrictions culminates into colonial resistance towards the British crown. Remember that the questions asks what this excerpt would justify, which in this case is B, colonial resistance.

Question 2B

The excerpt provides evidence to support the argument that (NAT-1.0)

  • A. colonies existed to promote the financial interests of their mother countries.
  • B. colonists are virtually represented by the members of Parliament.
  • C. government is responsible for protecting the people’s interests.
  • D. the needs of individuals are more important than are the needs of the majority.

Answer: C

Explanation: The government is responsible for protecting the people’s interests, which is a reflection of Locke's ideology.

Why it's the right answer

The take home message of this excerpt is that the government's primary role is to serve and protect it's people. Once you understand this, you can commence your search for the right answer. We can immediately eliminate D of the list as it is the direct opposite of Locke's argument. If anything, the government would choose the people (majority) over select individuals. While A is true, this implies that the British monarchy saw the colonists as investments, not people necessarily. Moreover, financial interests does not always go hand in hand with what the majority wants, as we will later see in the American Revolution.

If B were true, then it is probable the American history would have changed quite a bit. as the colonists had no representation whatsoever. In fact, one of the main grievances of the Americans cried out was "No taxation without representation!" Keep in mind that the British monarchy raised taxes on the colonists without consulting them in the first first. In short, we are left with answer C, which is exactly what Locke argued for.

Question 2C

The excerpt reflects the intellectual influence of (NAT-1.0)

  • A. Protestant Reformation.
  • B. Puritan theology.
  • C. Great Awakening.
  • D. Enlightenment.

Answer: D

Explanation: The Enlightenment was an intellectual based movement in Europe that distanced itself away from religion and placed much more emphasis on reason. Furthermore, this movement concerned itself with individual liberty, philosophy and forms of governance. In fact, John Locke was one of the most prominent names of the Enlightenment.

Why it's the right answer

To recap, the excerpt talks about the relationship between the individual and government. Plus, it stresses the importance of government dutifully serving its people (with consent of course). With this in mind, let's review all of our options. Luckily, we could solve this question quickly as A, B and C have nothing to do with government. Although each approaches Christianity from a different angle, this passage exclusively focuses on government, not religion. With A, B and C eliminated, D is our final answer.

The Great Awakening Source

Stimulus 3

There is therefore in the spiritual light: a true sense of the divine and superlative excellency of the things of religion; a real sense of the excellency of God and Jesus Christ, and of the work of redemption, and the ways and works of God revealed in the gospel. There is a divine and superlative glory in these things; an excellency that is of a vastly higher kind, and more sublime nature, than in other things; a glory greatly distinguishing them from all that is earthly and temporal. He that is spiritually enlightened truly apprehends and sees it, or has a sense of it. He does not merely rationally believe that God is glorious, but he has a sense of the gloriousness of God in his heart...”

-'A Divine and Supernatural Light', Jonathan Edwards, 1733.

Question 3A

The excerpt above serves as evidence of (CUL-1.0)

  • A. the growth of secular organizations in the colonies.
  • B. colonial support for the establishment of Catholicism as a state religion.
  • C. the prevalence of the Puritan idea that salvation was determined by God before birth.
  • D. a growing emphasis on a more personal, emotional religious experience.

Answer: D

Explanation: The Great Awakening preached a emphasis on person religious experiences. Since Johnathan Edwards's passage is about the benefits of the Great Awakening, the excerpt serves as evidence for personal salvation and religious experiences.

Why it's the right answer

When reading this passage, one notable feature that should stick out is Christianity's heavy presence in it. Knowing this, we can immediately cross out answer A. If anyone had a difficult time with answer B, just remember that this excerpt was quoted by Jonathan Edwards, a Puritan, not a Catholic. To put it in other terms, why would Jonathan Edwards advocate for Catholicism?

Now we are left with answer C and D. No where in the text does Edwards talk about predestination or salvation. On the contrary, this passage places more emphasis on the individual's relationship with God.

Question 3B

Which thinker’s ideas were most similar to those presented in the excerpt?

  • A. George Whitefield
  • B. John Calvin
  • C. Bartolomeo de las Casas
  • D. Martin Luther

Answer: A

Explanation: George Whitfield became a religious icon who spread a message of personal salvation and a more democratic Christianity.

Why it's the right answer

The best way to approach this answer is to think: "Well, who said it?" So, we start by eliminating the least likely option, which in this case would be answer C. Remember, De las Casas was Catholic, so it is very possible that both men would not see eye to eye on such a topic. Now we are left Calvin, Luther and Whitefield. This can be tricky, as these three men share relatively similar beliefs. However, the answer lies in the text. The text does not necessarily call for reformations (as Protestantism or Calvinism did). Instead, it explains the importance of the individual's relationship with God.

Question 3C

The excerpt above supports the argument that (CUL-1.0)

  • A. the goals and interests of European leaders at times diverged from those of colonial citizens, leading to growing mistrust on both sides of the Atlantic.
  • B. late 17th-century efforts to pursue mercantilist economic aims met with scant success due to various forms of colonial resistance.
  • C. the ethnically and religiously diverse middle colonies supported a flourishing export economy based on cereal crops.
  • D. trans-Atlantic contacts and Protestant evangelism contributed to greater religious independence and diversity in the American colonies.

Answer: D

Explanation: The excerpt supports that trans-Atlantic contacts and Protestant evangelism contributed to greater religious independence and diversity in the American colonies. This is reaffirmed by Johnathan Edwards observations in the passage.

Why it's the right answer

In the passage we find Jonathan Edwards explain the individual's relationship with God from an evangelical point of view. As a result, we definitely see this as proof of religious diversity (remember that several colonies practiced different branches of Christianity). Thus when we look at the other three options, we can cross all of them out as this passage does not pertain to the political or economical side of life of the colonists. Edwards does not concern himself with colonial resistance, especially when such a conflict would arise decades later.

Question 3D

The excerpt above should be considered within the historical context of (CUL-1.0)

  • A. the Pueblo Revolt.
  • B. the Enlightenment.
  • C. the Great Awakening.
  • D. Mercantilist economic policies.

Answer: C

Explanation: The Great Awakening or First Great Awakening was an evangelical and revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America, especially the American colonies, in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American Protestantism.

Why it's the right answer

When we look at the passage, we can see that it took place in 1733, which conveniently falls in the era of the (first) Great Awakening. Now the Pueblo Revolt, although it occurred in North America, happened in the late 17th century. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that took place in Europe. Furthermore, The Enlightenment focused more on rational thought and government instead of religion. As for answer D, this text makes zero reference to economic policies. It merely talks about the individuals relationship with God.

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Conclusion

Period 2 not only sees growing tensions between the Natives and the settlers, but also begins to set the seeds for future dissatisfaction between the colonists and the British crown. In the next review we will cover Period 3, an exciting era of American History as it covers the entirety of the American Revolutionary War. There we will encounter larger than life icons such as George Washington, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. Till' next time!