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AP European History Period 3 Review Questions and Discussion Pt.1

Crimean War Source

Introduction

Welcome to Period 3! There is much to cover in this section as there is ALOT going on in this era. From the creation of Germany and Italy to the colonization of Africa and even the establishment of a dual monarchy in the now Austrian-Hungarian Empire, the 19th century is hectic and a bit chaotic to say the least. New ideas swarmed the political scene (this period is called the Era of Isms for a reason) and revolutions became harder to controlled as they bubbled to the surface more frequently. Heck, 1848 is a year where revolution plagued Europe nonstop. It even ended Metternich's career as a matter of fact!

Speaking of revolutions, we see some in the Italian states, as people demanded for unification. Austria had to fan out the sparks of revolution constantly as that posed a deadly threat to her very existence. Even France with her very bloody revolution, went through a second revolution. Politics itself takes an interesting turn when it shifts from ideological to pragmatical. Don't worry, I'll explain more of that later. Anyways, politics aside, we see new developments in science and philosophy, whether it is Freud or Nietzsche.

As always, new ideas challenge the old. The Enlightenment (covered in the last post) prided itself on knowledge, science and certainty. In this period, we encounter Romanticism. Instead of critiquing and fearing human nature and the unknown, Romanticists embraced humanity with all its beauty and flaws. Nature and all of her complexities were deeply appreciated as well. For this review section, we will go over the Isms and its relation to European politics.

Just as a note to my readers out there, this post is a bit longer than usual, so it is split into two parts. You are now reading Part 1

Regardless, there is much to discuss, so let's jump right in!


Want more practice? Click the book cover above to buy an eBook of 55 multiple choice questions for AP Euro on Amazon with similar topic ratios as the exam to prepare for test day.

Stimulus 1

“The first, original, and truly natural boundaries of states are beyond doubt their internal boundaries. Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long before any human art begins; they understand each other and have the power of continuing to make themselves understood more and more clearly; they belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable whole. Such a whole, if it wishes to absorb and mingle with itself any other people of different descent and language, cannot do so without itself becoming confused, in the beginning at any rate, and violently disturbing the even progress of its culture.

From this internal boundary, which is drawn by the spiritual nature of man himself, the marking of the external boundary by dwelling place results as a consequence; and in the natural view of things it is not because men dwell between certain mountains and rivers that they are a people, but, on the contrary, men dwell together-and, if their luck has so arranged it, are protected by rivers and mountains-because they were a people already by a law of nature which is much higher.”

--Johann Gottlieb Fichte

1A. Of which 19th-century ideology is the excerpt most representative?

  • A) utopian socialism

  • B) nationalism

  • C) conservatism

  • D) Zionism

Answer: B

Explanation: Nationalism is this ideology that promotes that a group of people sharing the same culture, language, religion and customs should be administered by a government that reflects these characteristics and values.

Why it's right

Nationalism plays an important role in this historical period. We can see a sweep of nationalistic fever sweep across Europe, particularly in Prussia, Italian states and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Keep in mind that until this time period, there was no Italy or Germany. The Italy we know today was primarily composed of various states. The same goes for Germany too, as in this time period Germany was made of Prussia along with several other German states. Towards the progression of this time period, nationalism will be the driving force to solidify the creation of Germany and Italy.

At the same time, nationalism was also a wedge that tore empires apart. The Austro-Hungarian empire is an excellent example of this. Ruled by a dual monarchy, the Austro-Hungarian empire ruled over countless cultures and ethnicities. As nationalism spread through Europe, multiple political upheavals occurred throughout the continent. In relation to the Autro-Hungarian empire, her people wanted to break away from the empire to have their own nation state. Despite their collaborative efforts to break away, revolutionaries could not muster enough strength to defeat the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Ultimately, the Austro-Hungarian empire managed to squash these various political uprisings and kept the empire relatively intact.

In regards to the question itself, this question asks to pick the term that best fits the text. When we look at the text, we can see that the author speaks of forming a nation that best suits the people that inhabit it. For instance:

Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long before any human art begins; they understand each other...belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable whole.

With that being said, the other option does not fit in as there is no call for a new socioeconomic system (A). C is the opposite of Nationalism as conservatism sought to end nationalistic movements given that it would disorient the old order. And finally, D is incorrect as there the text does not advocate for the creation of a Jewish state.

Industrial Revolution Source

2A. All of the following employed rhetoric similar to that presented in the excerpt in order to further their political goals EXCEPT for

  • A) Giuseppe Garibaldi.

  • B) Camillo Cavour.

  • C) Otto von Bismarck.

  • D) Klemens von Metternich.

Answer: D

Explanation: Metternich was an Austrian statesman that sought to keep conservative ideals afloat in European politics. He advocated to maintain the status quo and vehemently opposed revolutions that popped up in Europe, as revolutions would bring chaos and upset the established order.

Why it's right

Looking back at the excerpt, the main idea that should stick out is Nationalism. A, B and C all advocated for state unification, whether it was Italy (Cavour and Garibaldi) or Germany (Bismarck), through nationalism. Metternich, on the other hand, frequently made sure to put down revolutions before it got out of control. Despite their different methods, A, B and C made great use of Nationalism, as it is an excellent unifying force to bring people together, and ultimately, form a country.

3A. Which of the following is most SIMILAR to the argument presented in the excerpt?

  • A) “The monarchs will fulfill the duties imposed upon them by [God] who has charged them to watch over the maintenance of justice, and the rights of all, to avoid the paths of error,
    and tread firmly in the way of truth.”

  • B) “That by ‘our country’ is meant, in this case, not the soil or the spot of earth on which we happen to have been born; not the forests and fields, but that
    community of which we are members...”

  • C) “I heartily believe that government is best which governs not at all; and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have.”

  • D) “​The will of the people, moreover, in practice means the will of the most numerous or the most active part of the people...”

Answer: B

Explanation: Nationalism is this ideology that promotes that a group of people sharing the same culture, language, religion and customs should be administered by a government that reflects these characteristics and values.

Why it's right

If you had trouble with this question, don't worry! This is definitely a tricky one. Although theses small blocks of text appear similar and intimidating, they are not actually. Just take a deep breathe and read the options carefully.

Let's start with A. Now A speaks of kings and queens who chosen by God to lead the state. This sounds awfully similar to Divine Right, or a concept that God chooses monarchs to rule the land, hence making chosen monarch a legitimate and unquestionable ruler. After all, disputing the monarch legitimacy means to question God's decision. This can tie to Absolutism, or a political system where monarchs have absolute power over the state's government.

But if you need visual aid, whenever you think Divine right or Absolutism, think of this:

Leviathan Source Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes

Or this fella right here

Louis XIV

Source King Louis 14th

Anyways, (A) would be incorrect for this question as absolutism and/or divine right does not necessarily fit with nationalism. The issue with (C) is that nationalism does not demand for less government intervention/control. Sure, nationalistic supporters wanted to break away from the government (Austro-Hungarian Empire!), but only because groups of people wanted to rule themselves with a government that best reflects their ideas and culture. We can cross this off.

(But for those of you who are interested, the text in C comes from Henry David Thoreau)

Now D may sounds extremely tempting to choose, as it is very adamant on carrying out the "will of the people". However, do not confuse this with nationalism. Although nationalists advocate for a government and country of their people, that does not equate to the majority. Take a closer look at (D):

  • D) “​The will of the people, moreover, in practice means the will of the most numerous or the most active part of the people...”

In short, (D) follows a more philosophical approach (Utilitarianism if anyone's curious) rather than a political perspective.


Want more practice? Click the book cover above to buy an eBook of 55 multiple choice questions for AP Euro on Amazon with similar topic ratios as the exam to prepare for test day.

Stimulus 2

Marxism

Source

*“Long before I came to reside among you, it had been my chief study to discover the extent, causes, and remedy of the inconveniences and miseries which were perpetually recurring to every class in society…. It was evident to me that the evil was universal; that, in practice, none was in the right path… and that, in order to remedy the evil, a different one must be pursued.

That the whole man must be re-formed on fundamental principles the very reverse of those in
which he had been trained; in short, that the minds of all men must be born again, and their
knowledge and practice commence on a new foundation…

Will it not, then, tend to the welfare and advantage of this neighborhood, to introduce into it such a practical system [the Institution] as shall gradually withdraw the causes of anger, hatred, discord, and every evil passion, and substitute true and genuine principles of universal charity and of never-varying kindness…? This will be accomplished in two ways:

First, by showing to the master manufacturers an example… of the mode by which the characters and situation of the working manufacturers whom they employ may be very materially improved, not only without injury to the masters, but so as to create to them also great and substantial advantages.

Second, by inducing, through this example, the British legislature to enact such laws as will secure similar benefits to every part of our population… laws to diminish and ultimately prevent the most prominent evils to which the working classes are now subjected, laws to prevent a large part of our fellow-subjects, under the manufacturing system, from being oppressed by a much smaller part, to prevent more than one-half of our population from being trained in gross ignorance, and their valuable labor from being most injuriously directed….”*

--Robert Owen, ‘An Address to the Inhabitants of New Lanark,’ 1816

1B. Of which nineteenth-century ideology is the excerpt most representative?

  • A) nationalism

  • B) utopian socialism

  • C) conservatism

  • D) anarchism

Answer: B

Explanation: Utopian socialism was this idea that prided itself on creating a perfect and peaceful egalitarian-based community. In this ideal society, property was shared, but people were also entitled to own their own property. This ideology was a response to the visible class divisions in 19th century Europe.

Why it's right

It's all in the wording. The passage envisions a community where the average man is protected from harsh and overly demanding work environment. This becomes more apparent when the passage calls for:

Second, by inducing, through this example, the British legislature to enact such laws as will secure similar benefits to every part of our population…. laws to diminish and ultimately prevent
the most prominent evils to which the working classes are now subjected, laws to prevent a large
part of our fellow-subjects, under the manufacturing system, from being oppressed by a much
smaller part, to prevent more than one-half of our population from being trained in gross
ignorance, and their valuable labor from being most injuriously directed….

Instead the wealthy harvesting all the benefits, this letter demands that laws should be passed to secure benefits for all citizens. The answer is not A as the passage is not considered about nationalistic sentiment among the people. Rather, the passage focuses on the socioeconomic aspect of society. B is definitely incorrect as conservatism seeks to maintain the current status quo and prevent radical changes from being implemented in society (in other words, total opposite of what Utopian socialism, given that it advocates radical change) And finally, D is wrong has the excerpt specifically asks for the government to implement these new changes. Anarchism bases its ideals on a society that exists without any form of government.

2B. The last paragraph of the excerpt provides evidence to support the argument that

  • A) reformers believed that a return to communal agriculture was the only solution to the societal ills created by the Industrial Revolution.

  • B) leisure time centered increasingly on the family or small groups, concurrent with the development of activities and spaces to use that time.

  • C) bourgeois families became focused on the nuclear family and the cult of domesticity, with distinct roles for men and women.

  • D) industrialization caused socioeconomic changes that led to the development of self-conscious classes, such as the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.

Answer: D

Explanation: The Industrial revolution had a sudden and visible impact on the social class structure of industrialized nations. It brought forth a growing bourgeoisie class, but also expanded a proletariat (workers) class. At the same time, the line that divided class divisions became more definite.

Why it's right

Although the Industrial revolution brought about innovation in science, business, and technology, it also had it's setbacks. Labor laws offered little protection towards workers. As a result, factories and mills offered very little pay in potentially dangerous work environments. Soon enough, it became apparent who worked in a factory and who did not. These visible differences eventually caught scholars' and intellectuals' minds. From their observation, they called for reforms in how society ought to be run. This is how we see the rise of new, competing ideologies, such as anarchism, utopian socialism and communism.

When we look at the other answers, we see elements of pure falsehoods or partial truths. For instance, there were people who vehemently opposed to the Industrial revolution as they saw as a curse towards society (A). Some saw technology as an evil that ought to be destroyed and avoided (Luddites). However, this passage does not place its quarrels with technology. Instead, the passage demands for greater protections and benefits for the working class. There was very little room for leisure time as families (namely, workers) had to work extremely long hours (due to low wages) to make ends meet (B). As for C, despite the societal expectation of women running domestic duties, women began to pursue jobs in factories to support their families, which is a shift from them only permitted or expected to work in the home setting.


Want more practice? Click the book cover above to buy an eBook of 55 multiple choice questions for AP Euro on Amazon with similar topic ratios as the exam to prepare for test day.

Go on to the next post for Part 2 of this review